Smoking processes, panic, and depressive symptoms among treatment-seeking smokers

Dawn W Foster, Kirsten J Langdon, Norman B Schmidt, Michael Zvolensky
Substance Use & Misuse 2015, 50 (3): 394-402

OBJECTIVES: The present study evaluated the relative contribution of panic and depressive symptoms in relation to past cessation difficulties and smoking motives among treatment-seeking daily smokers.

METHODS: The sample included 392 treatment-seeking daily smokers (47.07% female; Mage = 35.48; SD = 13.56), who reported smoking an average of 10 or more cigarettes daily for at least one year.

RESULTS: Findings indicated that panic and depressive symptoms were significantly associated with quit problems as well as addictive and negative affect motives for smoking. However, depressive symptoms were not associated with habitual smoking motives.

CONCLUSIONS: Differential patterns of associations with smoking-based processes imply that although panic and depression are related, there are important distinctions. Such data highlight the need for additional research to examine the putative role of panic and depressive symptoms in relation to smoking behaviors to further elucidate the mechanisms through which panic, depression, and smoking impact one another.

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