JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

A history of robots: from science fiction to surgical robotics

N G Hockstein, C G Gourin, R A Faust, D J Terris
Journal of Robotic Surgery 2007, 1 (2): 113-8
25484946
Surgical robotics is an evolving field with great advances having been made over the last decade. The origin of robotics was in the science-fiction literature and from there industrial applications, and more recently commercially available, surgical robotic devices have been realized. In this review, we examine the field of robotics from its roots in literature to its development for clinical surgical use. Surgical mills and telerobotic devices are discussed, as are potential future developments.

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