[Pulse indicator continuous cardiac output measurement-guided treatment aids two pediatric patients with severe acute pancreatitis complicated with acute respiratory distress syndrome]

Weiyuan Yan, Lijie Wang
Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics 2014, 52 (9): 693-8

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical value of the pulse indicator continuous cardiac output (PiCCO) system in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) complicated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

METHOD: Two cases of SAP with ARDS were monitored using PiCCO during comprehensive management in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) of Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University. To guide fluid management, the cardiac index (CI) was measured to assess cardiac function, the global end-diastolic volume index (GEDVI) was used to evaluate cardiac preload, and the extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) was used to evaluate the pulmonary edema.

RESULT: Case 1 was diagnosed with type L2 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (intermediate risk) and received the sixth maintenance phases of chemotherapy this time. After a 1-week dosage of chemotherapeutic drugs (pegaspargase and mitoxantrone), he suffered SAP combined with ARDS. Except comprehensive treatment (life supporting, antibiotic, etc.) and applying continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) to remove inflammatory mediators. PiCCO monitor was utilized to guide fluid management. During the early stage of PiCCO monitoring, the patient showed no significant manifestations of pulmonary edema in the bedside chest X-ray (bedside ultrasound showed left pleural effusion), and had an oxygenation index 223 mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa), GEDVI 450 ml/m², and ELVWI 7 ml/kg. We increased cardiac output to increase tissue perfusion and dehydration speed of CVVHDF was set at 70 ml/h. Two hours later, GEDVI significantly increased to 600 ml/m² and ELVWI significantly increased to 10 ml/kg, the oxygenation index declined to 155 mmHg, the bedside chest X-ray showed a significant decrease of permeability (right lung) and PEEP was adjusted to 5 cmH₂O (1 cmH₂O = 0.098 kPa), indicating circulating overload. ARDS subsequently occurred, upon which the fluid infusion was halted, the dehydration rate of CVVHDF raised (adjusted to 100-200 ml/h). On day 3 in the PICU, EVLWI dropped to 6 ml/kg, GEDVI dropped to 370 ml/m², and the oxygenation index increased to 180 mmHg. On day 8, the patient was successfully weaned from the ventilator. However, on day 9, the patient reverted to mechanical ventilation due to secondary infection. On day 30, the patient was discharged for voluntarily giving up treatment. Late follow-up results showed that the patient was dead one day after giving up treatment. Case 2 was admitted due to SAP induced by overeating one day before admission. On day 2, the patient showed dyspnea and oxygen saturation decreased to 80%. We applied mechanical ventilation, CVVHDF to remove inflammatory mediators and PiCCO to guide fluid management. According to the initial data of PiCCO, EVLWI was 9 ml/kg, GEDVI was 519 ml/m², the oxygenation index was 298 mmHg, the bedside chest X-ray showed decreased permeability and PEEP was adjusted to 5 cmH₂O, suggesting the existence of ARDS. During treatment, the dehydration speed of CVVHDF was set at 50 ml/h to maintain the balance of fluid input and output. Two hours after PiCCO monitoring, the oxygenation index decreased to 140 mmHg, GEDVI 481 ml/m², EVLWI 9 ml/kg, thus the dehydration speed of CVVHDF was increased (up to 100 ml/h). On day 4 in the PICU, EVLWI was 9 ml/kg, GEDVI was 430 ml/m², oxygenation index was 394 mmHg, and the bedside chest X-ray showed that permeability was higher. On day 5, the patient was transferred from PiCCO. On day 30, the patient recovered and was discharged.

CONCLUSION: PiCCO monitoring can provide real-time surveillance of cardiac function, cardiac preload and afterload, and extravascular lung water in pediatric patients with SAP combined with ARDS. These results are clinically significant for the rescue of critically ill patients with ARDS or shock.

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