RotaFlow and CentriMag extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support systems as treatment strategies for refractory cardiogenic shock

Antonio Loforte, Emanuele Pilato, Sofia Martin Suarez, Gianluca Folesani, Giuliano Jafrancesco, Sebastiano Castrovinci, Francesco Grigioni, Giuseppe Marinelli
Journal of Cardiac Surgery 2015, 30 (2): 201-8

BACKGROUND: RotaFlow and Levitronix CentriMag veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support systems have been investigated as treatment for refractory cardiogenic shock (CS).

METHODS: Between 2004 and 2012, 119 consecutive adult patients were supported on RotaFlow (n = 104) or CentriMag (n = 15) ECMO at our institution (79 men; age 57.3 ± 12.5 years, range:19-78 years). Indications for support were: failure to wean from cardiopulmonary bypass in the setting of postcardiotomy (n = 47) and primary graft failure (n = 26); post-acute myocardial infarction CS (n = 11); acute myocarditis (n = 3); and CS on chronic heart failure (n = 32).

RESULTS: A central ECMO setting was established in 64 (53.7%) patients while peripherally in 55 (46.2%). Overall mean support time was 10.9 ± 8.7 days (range:1-43 days). Forty-two (35.2%) patients died on ECMO. Overall success rate, in terms of survival on ECMO (n = 77), weaning from mechanical support (n = 51; 42.8%) and bridge to heart transplantation (n = 26; 21.8%), was 64.7%. Sixty-eight (57.1%) patients were successfully discharged. Stepwise logistic regression identified blood lactate level and CK-MB relative index at 72 h after ECMO initiation, and number of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) transfused on ECMO as significant predictors of mortality (p = 0.011, odds ratio [OR] = 2.48; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11-3.12; p = 0.012, OR = 2.81, 95% CI = 1.02-2.53; and p = 0.012, OR = 1.94; 95% CI = 1.02-5.21; respectively). Central ECMO population had a higher rate of continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) need and bleeding events when compared with the peripheral setting.

CONCLUSIONS: Patients with a poor hemodynamic status may benefit by rapid insertion of veno-arterial ECMO. The blood lactate level, CK-MB relative index and PRBCs transfused should be strictly monitored during ECMO support.

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