RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
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Hepatic miR-378 targets p110α and controls glucose and lipid homeostasis by modulating hepatic insulin signalling.

Nature Communications 2014 December 5
Understanding the regulation of insulin signalling in tissues provides insights into carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in physiology and disease. Here we show that hepatic miR-378/378* expression changes in response to fasting and refeeding in mice. Mice overexpressing hepatic miR-378/378* exhibit pure hepatic insulin resistance. miR-378 inhibits hepatic insulin signalling through targeting p110α, a subunit of PI3K and hence a critical component of insulin signalling. Knockdown of hepatic p110α mimics the effect of miR-378, while restoration of p110α expression abolishes the action of miR-378 on insulin signalling as well as its systemic effects on glucose and lipid homeostasis. miR-378/378* knockout mice display hypoglycemia and increased hepatic triglyceride level with enhanced insulin sensitivity. Inhibition of hepatic p110α in miR-378/378* knockout mice corrects the abnormal glucose tolerance. Finally, we show that overexpression of hepatic miR-378/378* ameliorates hepatic steatosis in ob/ob mice without exacerbating hyperglycemia. Our findings establish fasting-responsive miR-378 as a critical regulator of hepatic insulin signalling.

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