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JOURNAL ARTICLE
MULTICENTER STUDY

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and the soluble receptor for AGE (sRAGE) in patients with type 1 diabetes and coeliac disease

S F Bakker, M E Tushuizen, E Gözütok, A Çiftci, K A Gelderman, C J Mulder, S Simsek
Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD 2015, 25 (2): 230-5
25467215

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Advanced glycation end (AGE) products play a role in the progression of diabetic complications. Gluten-free diet (GFD) might affect AGE levels in patients who adhere to a GFD because of coeliac disease (CD). The aim of our study was to compare skin AGE levels and soluble receptor AGE levels (sRAGE) in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) with (T1DM + CD) and without CD (T1DM - CD) and healthy controls.

METHODS AND RESULTS: We recruited 25 T1DM + CD and 25 T1DM - CD patients, matched for age, gender, diabetes duration, and glycaemic control alongside 25 healthy controls. We collected demographic, clinical and biochemical characteristics, including skin autofluorescence (AF), sRAGE and hs-CRP levels. The duration of T1DM in patients was 30 ± 14 (+CD) and 29 ± 14 years (-CD), whereas CD duration in T1DM + CD patients was 14 ± 10 years. Skin AF levels in T1DM patients were higher compared to healthy controls (2.5 ± 0.6 versus 1.9 ± 0.4, p < 0.01) and skin AF was independently associated with age (r = 0.72, p < 0.01). sRAGE levels were higher in T1DM - CD patients compared to healthy controls (1554 ± 449 versus 1309 ± 400, p = 0.049) and independently associated with creatinine levels (r = 0.32, p < 0.01).

CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that skin AGE and sRAGE levels are elevated in T1DM patients compared with healthy controls. No difference in skin AF or sRAGE levels between T1DM patients with or without CD were observed. The present study suggests that differences in microvascular complications between T1DM and T1DM + CD patients are not due to differences in skin AF or sRAGE levels.

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