Bioactivity-guided isolation of antiplasmodial constituents from Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E.H. Walker

Pone Kamdem Boniface, Surjeet Verma, Aparna Shukla, Harveer Singh Cheema, Santosh Kumar Srivastava, Feroz Khan, Mahendra Pandurang Darokar, Anirban Pal
Parasitology International 2015, 64 (1): 118-23
Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E.H. Walker (Cs) leaves are used for traditional treatment of malaria in Cameroon. However, the antimalarial activity of the leaf constituents of this plant is still unexplored. The aim of our investigation was to evaluate the antiplasmodial activity of some bioactive constituents from Cs leaves. Compounds were isolated from Cs leaves and structurally elucidated using extensive spectroscopic analysis. The in vitro antiplasmodial activity of the extracts and pure compounds were evaluated on chloroquine-sensitive strain (NF54) of Plasmodium falciparum. The in vivo assay was done by administering seven doses of extracts in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei K173 through oral route. Cytotoxicity of pure compounds on murine macrophage cells was performed through [3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide] (MTT) test. Hemolysis and lactate dehydrogenase assays were also carried out using standard procedures. The in silico prediction of bioactive constituents was performed through Autodock Vina. Polarity-based extracts from Cs were found to be active against P. falciparum (NF54) and P. berghei (K173) in vitro and in vivo respectively. Further, bioactivity-guided isolation of n-hexane fraction yielded three compounds, (1), (2) and (3) with IC50 of 34, 17.9 and 18μg/ml, respectively, while the ethyl acetate fraction afforded the fourth compound with an IC50 of 25μg/ml, indicating anti-malarial potential of Cs through PfLDH interaction without compromising normal cell growth. This study reports for the first time, the antiplasmodial activity of bioactive constituents from Cs and confirms its traditional use.

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