Associations of trimester-specific gestational weight gain with maternal adiposity and systolic blood pressure at 3 and 7 years postpartum

Jessica R Walter, Wei Perng, Ken P Kleinman, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Janet W Rich-Edwards, Emily Oken
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2015, 212 (4): 499.e1-12

OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine the associations of total and trimester-specific gestational weight gain (GWG) rate with postpartum maternal weight and cardiometabolic risk. We hypothesized that first-trimester GWG would be most strongly associated with long-term maternal health.

STUDY DESIGN: We studied 801 women enrolled during the first trimester of pregnancy in the Boston-area Project Viva cohort 1999 through 2002. At 3 years postpartum we measured maternal weight, waist circumference (WC), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) and collected fasting blood from a subset. At 7 years postpartum we again measured weight and WC. We used multivariable linear regression to evaluate relations of total and trimester-specific GWG rate with weight change (vs self-reported prepregnancy weight) and WC at each time point, stratified by prepregnancy weight, as well as associations with SBP and insulin resistance at 3 years.

RESULTS: Median age at enrollment was 34.0 years (range, 16.4-44.9); 65% were white. Mean (SD) total GWG rate was 0.38 (0.14) kg/wk. Women gained weight faster during the second (0.47 [0.19] kg/wk) and third (0.44 [0.22] kg/wk) trimesters than the first (0.22 [0.22] kg/wk). Total and first-trimester GWG rate were most strongly associated with postpartum weight change. Among normal-weight women, each 1-SD increase in total and first-trimester GWG rate corresponded with 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.07-1.63) kg and 2.08 (1.32-2.84) kg greater weight change at 3 and 7 years postpartum, respectively, but there was not strong evidence of association for either second- (-0.30 kg; 95% CI, -1.08 to 0.48) or third- (-0.26 kg; 95% CI, -1.08 to 0.55) trimester GWG. First-trimester GWG rate also related to 3-year postpartum weight change in overweight (2.28 kg; 95% CI, 0.95-3.61) and obese (2.47 kg; 95% CI, 0.98-3.97) women. Greater total and first-trimester GWG rate were associated with larger WC and higher SBP but not insulin resistance.

CONCLUSION: In this observational cohort, first-trimester weight gain was more strongly associated with maternal weight retention as well as higher WC and blood pressure than second- or third-trimester gain. Interventions targeting GWG beginning very early in pregnancy may benefit long-term maternal health.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"