Harnessing the PD-1 pathway in renal cell carcinoma: current evidence and future directions

Abhishek Tripathi, Charles G Drake, Lauren C Harshman
BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy 2014, 28 (6): 513-26
Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) is a recognized immune checkpoint. It is frequently upregulated on the T cells that infiltrate tumors, providing an inhibitory signal, which may facilitate immune escape. Blocking antibodies have been developed to interrupt the interaction of PD-1 with its ligands PD-L1/PD-L2, with the goal of increasing the host antitumor immune response. Initial results have been encouraging, with durable responses in both treatment-naive and pretreated patients, along with an acceptable toxicity profile. This tolerability makes PD-1 blockade an excellent potential partner for combination strategies with the approved targeted agents, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) antibodies, as well as other investigational immune checkpoint inhibitors or agonist antibodies that may costimulate an immune response. PD-L1 expression on tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating immune cells is also being evaluated as a predictive biomarker of response to treatment. This review summarizes the biological basis, preclinical studies, ongoing trials, and future challenges associated with targeting the PD-1 pathway in renal cell carcinoma.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"