Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations and their mimics

S S Gill, M E Roddie, C L Shovlin, J E Jackson
Clinical Radiology 2015, 70 (1): 96-110
Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) are abnormal communications between the pulmonary arteries and veins, which result in a right-to-left (R-L) shunt with resultant hypoxemia, the severity of which will depend upon the size and number of lesions. Most PAVMs occur in individuals with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) and are a cause of serious morbidity and mortality largely related to cerebrovascular complications secondary to paradoxical embolization. The importance of their recognition and treatment by embolization, even in the absence of symptoms, is well known. Their appearances on chest radiographs are often, but not always, characteristic and the CT appearances are diagnostic; however, there are a number of both vascular and non-vascular diseases that can cause confusion. This review serves to highlight these PAVM "mimics".

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