Effectiveness and Safety of Sleeve Gastrectomy, Gastric Bypass, and Adjustable Gastric Banding in Morbidly Obese Patients: a Multicenter, Retrospective, Matched Cohort Study

Kemal Dogan, Ralph P M Gadiot, Edo O Aarts, Bark Betzel, Cees J H M van Laarhoven, Laser U Biter, Guido H H Mannaerts, Theo J Aufenacker, Ignace M C Janssen, Frits J Berends
Obesity Surgery 2015, 25 (7): 1110-8

BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB), laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG), and laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) are the most performed procedures worldwide (92 %) nowadays. However, comparative clinical trials are scarce in literature. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness and safety of the three most performed bariatric procedures.

METHODS: A multicenter, retrospective, matched cohort study was conducted. Patients were eligible for analysis when a primary procedure was performed between 2007 and 2010 in one of the two specialized bariatric centers. Primary outcome was weight loss, expressed in the percentage excess weight loss (%EWL). Secondary outcome parameters are hospital stay, complication rate, and revisional surgery.

RESULTS: In total, 735 patients, 245 in each group, were included for analysis. The groups were comparable for age and gender after matching. Mean postoperative follow-up was 3.1 ± 1.2 years. LAGB patients showed less %EWL compared to LSG and LRYGB at all postoperative follow-up visits. LRYGB showed a %EWL of 71 ± 20 % compared to LSG (76 ± 23 %; p=0.008) after 1-year follow-up; thereafter, no significant difference was observed. After 3 years of follow-up, LAGB showed a higher complication rate compared to LSG and LRYGB (p<0.05). Revisional surgery after LAGB was needed in 21 %, while 9 % of the LSG underwent conversion to RYGB.

CONCLUSIONS: LRYGB is a safe and effective treatment in morbid obese patients with good long-term outcomes. LSG seems to be an appropriate alternative as a definitive procedure, in terms of weight reduction and complication rate. LAGB is inferior to both LRYGB and LSG.

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