Role of glucose metabolism and ATP in maintaining PINK1 levels during Parkin-mediated mitochondrial damage responses

Schuyler Lee, Conggang Zhang, Xuedong Liu
Journal of Biological Chemistry 2015 January 9, 290 (2): 904-17
Mutations in several genes, including PINK1 and Parkin, are known to cause autosomal recessive cases of Parkinson disease in humans. These genes operate in the same pathway and play a crucial role in mitochondrial dynamics and maintenance. PINK1 is required to recruit Parkin to mitochondria and initiate mitophagy upon mitochondrial depolarization. In this study, we show that PINK1-dependent Parkin mitochondrial recruitment in response to global mitochondrial damage by carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazine (CCCP) requires active glucose metabolism. Parkin accumulation on mitochondria and subsequent Parkin-dependent mitophagy is abrogated in glucose-free medium or in the presence of 2-deoxy-D-glucose upon CCCP treatment. The defects in Parkin recruitment correlate with intracellular ATP levels and can be attributed to suppression of PINK1 up-regulation in response to mitochondria depolarization. Low levels of ATP appear to prevent PINK1 translation instead of affecting PINK1 mRNA expression or reducing its stability. Consistent with a requirement of ATP for elevated PINK1 levels and Parkin mitochondrial recruitment, local or individual mitochondrial damage via photoirradiation does not affect Parkin recruitment to damaged mitochondria as long as a pool of functional mitochondria is present in the photoirradiated cells even in glucose-free or 2-deoxy-D-glucose-treated conditions. Thus, our data identify ATP as a key regulator for Parkin mitochondrial translocation and sustaining elevated PINK1 levels during mitophagy. PINK1 functions as an AND gate and a metabolic sensor coupling biogenetics of cells and stress signals to mitochondria dynamics.

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