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High frequency of dolutegravir resistance in patients failing a raltegravir-containing salvage regimen

Jaqueline de Souza Cavalcanti, João Leandro de Paula Ferreira, Paula Morena de Souza Guimarães, Jose Ernesto Vidal, Luis Fernando de Macedo Brigido
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2015, 70 (3): 926-9
25386009

OBJECTIVES: Dolutegravir is a second-generation integrase strand transfer inhibitor (InSTI) that has been recently approved by the FDA to treat antiretroviral therapy-naive as well as treatment-experienced HIV-infected individuals, including those already exposed to the first-generation InSTI. Despite having a different mutational profile, some cross-resistance mutations may influence its susceptibility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a raltegravir-containing salvage regimen on dolutegravir activity.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Blood samples of 92 HIV-infected individuals with virological failure (two or more viral loads >50 copies/mL after 6 months of treatment) using raltegravir with optimized background therapy were sequenced and evaluated according to the Stanford University HIV Drug Resistance Database algorithm.

RESULTS: Among the 92 patients analysed, 32 (35%) showed resistance to dolutegravir, in most cases associated with the combination of Q148H/R/K with G140S/A mutations. At genotyping, patients with resistance to dolutegravir had viral load values closer to the highest previously documented viral load.

CONCLUSIONS: Changes in viraemia during virological failure may indicate the evolution of raltegravir resistance and may predict the emergence of secondary mutations that are associated with a decrease in dolutegravir susceptibility. Early discontinuation of raltegravir from failing regimens might favour subsequent salvage with dolutegravir, but further studies are necessary to evaluate this issue.

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