The alteration of protein prenylation induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through Rheb-mTORC1 signalling and leads to chronic heart failure

Na Xu, Shan Guan, Zhong Chen, Yang Yu, Jun Xie, Fei-Yan Pan, Ning-Wei Zhao, Li Liu, Zhong-Zhou Yang, Xiang Gao, Biao Xu, Chao-Jun Li
Journal of Pathology 2015, 235 (5): 672-85
G protein-regulated cell function is crucial for cardiomyocytes, and any deregulation of its gene expression or protein modification can lead to pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Herein, we report that protein prenylation, a lipidic modification of G proteins that facilitates their association with the cell membrane, might control the process of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. We found that geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS), a key enzyme involved in protein prenylation, played a critical role in postnatal heart growth by regulating cardiomyocyte size. Cardiac-specific knockout of GGPPS in mice led to spontaneous cardiac hypertrophy, beginning from week 4, accompanied by the persistent enlargement of cardiomyocytes. This hypertrophic effect occurred by altered prenylation of G proteins. Evaluation of the prenylation, membrane association and hydrophobicity showed that Rheb was hyperactivated and increased mTORC1 signalling pathway after GGPPS deletion. Protein farnesylation or mTORC1 inhibition blocked GGPPS knockdown-induced mTORC1 activation and suppressed the larger neonatal rat ventricle myocyte size and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vivo, demonstrating a central role of the FPP-Rheb-mTORC1 axis for GGPPS deficiency-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. The sustained cardiomyocyte hypertrophy progressively provoked cardiac decompensation and dysfunction, ultimately causing heart failure and adult death. Importantly, GGPPS was down-regulated in the hypertrophic hearts of mice subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and in failing human hearts. Moreover, HPLC-MS/MS detection revealed that the myocardial farnesyl diphosphate (FPP):geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) ratio was enhanced after pressure overload. Our observations conclude that the alteration of protein prenylation promotes cardiomyocyte hypertrophic growth, which acts as a potential cause for pathogenesis of heart failure and may provide a new molecular target for hypertrophic heart disease clinical therapy.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"