JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Current primary care management of children aged 1-36 months with urinary tract infections in Europe: large scale survey of paediatric practice.

OBJECTIVE: To describe current practice among European paediatricians regarding diagnosis and management of urinary tract infections in children aged 1-36 months and to compare these practices with recently published guidelines.

DESIGN: Web-based large scale survey evaluating knowledge of, attitudes towards and the methods for diagnosing, treating and managing urinary tract infections in children.

SETTING: Primary and secondary care practices in Europe.

SAMPLE: 1129 paediatricians.

RESULTS: A diagnosis of urinary tract infection is considered by 62% of the respondents in children aged 1-36 months with unexplained fever. The preferred method of urine collection is use of a bag (53% for infants <3 months and 59% for children 4-36 months of age). 60% of paediatricians agree that oral and parenteral antibiotics have equal efficacy. Co-amoxiclav is the antibiotic of choice for 41% of participants, while 9% prescribe amoxicillin. 80% of respondents prescribe ultrasound in all children with a confirmed urinary tract infection. 63% of respondents prescribe a cystography when abnormalities are revealed during ultrasound evaluation. A quarter of respondents recommend antibiotic prophylaxis for all children with any vesicoureteral reflux. The data among European countries are very heterogeneous. The three most recent urinary tract infection guidelines (the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), the American Academy of Paediatrics and the Italian Society of Paediatric Nephrology) are not followed properly.

CONCLUSIONS: Management of febrile urinary tract infections remains controversial and heterogeneous in Europe. Simple, short, practical and easy-to-remember guidelines and educational strategies to ensure their implementation should be developed.

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