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Trends in orbital complications of pediatric rhinosinusitis in the United States.

IMPORTANCE: Several studies have documented the prevalence and treatment of orbital complications secondary to pediatric rhinosinusitis, but to our knowledge, none have investigated the national health care burden of this disease since the introduction of the heptavalent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV-7).

OBJECTIVE: To identify the current public health burden of orbital complications of pediatric rhinosinusitis, and to determine if the introduction of the PCV-7 has resulted in a change in national practice patterns.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Population-based study using the 2000 and 2009 Kids' Inpatient Databases to gather data on a sample of all pediatric discharges in the United States during the years 2000 and 2009. Children diagnosed as having orbital complications of sinusitis were identified by corresponding International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes. Database analyses generated national estimates of summary statistics and comparison of trends over the 9-year period.

INTERVENTIONS: Database analysis.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: National health care trends according to year. End points assessed included prevalence, age, sex, length of hospital stay, and treatment of disease.

RESULTS: The estimated prevalence of orbital complications of sinusitis requiring hospitalization in the United States has slightly decreased from 5338 (95% CI, 4956-5720) admissions in 2000 to 4511 (95% CI, 4165-4858) in 2009. However, the mean age has increased from 4.77 (95% CI, 4.56-4.97) years to 6.07 (95% CI, 5.87-6.26) years. The proportion of children undergoing surgical treatment increased from 0.108 (95% CI, 0.093-0.123) to 0.195 (95% CI, 0.176-0.213). Total charges increased from $4,140,000 (95% CI, $3,440,000-$4,830,000) to $10,000,000 (95% CI, $8,480,000-$11,600,000) with a mean charge per admission increasing from $8390 (95% CI, $7096-$9685) in 2000 to $22,656 (95% CI, $19,997-$25,314) in 2009. The mean length of stay remained stable at 3.67 (95% CI, 3.37-3.97) to 4.05 (95% CI, 3.81-4.29) hospital days.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The public health impact of orbital complications of pediatric rhinosinusitis continues to be substantial. Since the institution of the PCV-7 vaccine, national trends demonstrate a slightly decreased prevalence of hospital admissions. However, there is a shifting trend toward an older age at admission and a higher proportion of children undergoing surgical treatment.

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