Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors do not increase the risk of cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes: a cohort study

Seoyoung C Kim, Robert J Glynn, Jun Liu, Brendan M Everett, Allison B Goldfine
Acta Diabetologica 2014, 51 (6): 1015-23

AIMS: Two recent randomized controlled trials of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with history of, or at high risk of, cardiovascular disease (CVD) showed no risk of ischemic cardiovascular events associated with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4i), but an increased risk of heart failure (HF) with saxagliptin. We evaluated the risk of CVD including myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, coronary revascularization, and HF associated with DPP4i in T2DM patients with and without baseline CVD as used in the community.

METHODS: Using US commercial insurance claims data (2005-2012), we conducted a cohort study that included initiators of DPP4i and non-DPP4i treatments. Composite CVD endpoints including MI, stroke, coronary revascularization, and HF were defined with a hospital discharge diagnosis or procedure code. Cox proportional hazards models compared the risk of composite and individual CVD endpoints in propensity score (PS)-matched initiators of DPP4 versus non-DPP4i.

RESULTS: We included 79,538 (18 % with baseline CVD) persons in PS-matched pairs of DPP4i and non-DPP4i initiators. The incidence rate per 1,000 person-years for composite CVD was 30.30 (95 % CI 28.24-32.51) in DPP4i and 34.76 (95 % CI 32.34-37.36) in non-DPP4i. The PS-matched hazard ratio (HR) for composite CVD was 0.87 (95 % CI 0.79-0.96) in DPP4i versus non-DPP4i. The PS-matched HR for HF was 0.81 (95 % CI 0.70-0.94) in DPP4i versus non-DPP4i. Among patients with baseline CVD, there was no increased risk of CVD or HF associated with DPP4i use.

CONCLUSIONS: Among T2DM patients, initiating DPP4i was not associated with a greater risk of CVD or HF compared to non-DPP4i initiators.

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