Pre-Hospital Glyceryl Trinitrate: Potential for Use in Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Jason J Chang, Nerses Sanossian
Journal of Neurological Disorders 2013 November 14, 2 (1)

BACKGROUND: Intracerebral hemorrhage is associated with poor clinical outcome and high mortality. Research and treatment modalities have focused on the expansion of the primary hematoma through blood pressure control and activation of coagulation factors. However, clinical trials have failed to show decreased rates of death or disability in intracerebral hemorrhage following hospital initiation of blood pressure control. However, as clinical deterioration often occurs immediately after onset, pre-hospital initiation of blood pressure control may be more ideal.

METHODS: Relevant terms in the National Library of Medicine PubMed database and selected research including basic science, translational reports, meta-analyses, and clinical studies were searched.

RESULTS: Trends indicating improved clinical outcome in intracerebral hemorrhage after hospital-initiated intensive systolic blood pressure control (goal<140 mmHg) have been demonstrated. Statistical significance may not have been obtained because of late treatment times of blood pressure control that approached median 4-6 hours after clinical onset. One trial utilizing glyceryl trinitrate in the pre-hospital setting has been shown to significantly decrease blood pressure within fifteen minutes and improve 90-day clinical outcome.

CONCLUSIONS: Glyceryl trinitrate represents an ideal pre-hospital blood pressure medication because it can be delivered via sublingual or transdermal routes, has a quick and graded onset of action, has neuroprotective effects, maintains cerebral perfusion, and has an established record of safety. As intracerebral hemorrhage requires prompt action to prevent clinical deterioration, more emphasis on pre-hospital therapies for blood pressure reduction will become essential in future therapies.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"

We want to hear from doctors like you!

Take a second to answer a survey question.