Antioxidant effects of JM-20 on rat brain mitochondria and synaptosomes: mitoprotection against Ca²⁺-induced mitochondrial impairment

Yanier Nuñez-Figueredo, Gilberto L Pardo-Andreu, Jeney Ramírez-Sánchez, René Delgado-Hernández, Estael Ochoa-Rodríguez, Yamila Verdecia-Reyes, Zeki Naal, Alexandre Pastoris Muller, Luis Valmor Portela, Diogo O Souza
Brain Research Bulletin 2014, 109: 68-76
Because mitochondrial oxidative stress and impairment are important mediators of neuronal damage in neurodegenerative diseases and in brain ischemia/reperfusion, in the present study, we evaluated the antioxidant and mitoprotective effect of a new promising neuroprotective molecule, JM-20, in mitochondria and synaptosomes isolated from rat brains. JM-20 inhibited succinate-mediated H₂O₂ generation in both mitochondria and synaptosomes incubated in depolarized (high K(+)) medium at extremely low micromolar concentration and with identical IC₅₀ values of 0.91 μM. JM-20 also repressed glucose-induced H₂O₂ generation stimulated by rotenone or by antimycin A in synaptosomes incubated in high sodium-polarized medium at extremely low IC₅₀ values of 0.395 μM and 2.452 μM, respectively. JM-20 was unable to react directly with H₂O₂ or with superoxide anion radicals but displayed a cathodic reduction peak at -0.71V, which is close to that of oxygen (-0.8V), indicating high electron affinity. JM-20 also inhibited uncoupled respiration in mitochondria or synaptosomes and was a more effective inhibitor in the presence of the respiratory substrates glutamate/malate than in the presence of succinate. JM-20 also prevented Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening, membrane potential dissipation and cytochrome c release, which are key pathogenic events during stroke. This molecule also prevented Ca(2+) influx into synaptosomes and mitochondria; the former effect was a consequence of the latter because JM-20 inhibition followed the patterns of carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl hydrazone (FCCP), which is a classic mitochondrial uncoupler. Because the mitochondrion is considered an important source and target of neuronal cell death signaling after an ischemic insult, the antioxidant and protective effects of JM-20 against the deleterious effects of Ca(2+) observed at the mitochondrial level in this study may endow this molecule with the ability to succeed in mitochondrion-targeted strategies to combat ischemic brain damage.

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