GNAQ and GNA11 mutations in uveal melanoma

Alexander N Shoushtari, Richard D Carvajal
Melanoma Research 2014, 24 (6): 525-34
G-protein-coupled receptors signal through heterotrimeric G proteins, Gα and G-βγ, to manage numerous aspects of physiologic homeostasis. Many neoplastic processes harbor alterations in G-protein-coupled receptors and/or G-α proteins, best exemplified by recurrent activating mutations in GNAQ or GNA11 in uveal melanomas. This review will discuss the multiple activated signaling targets downstream of mutant GNAQ and GNA11 in uveal melanoma, including MEK, PI3-kinase/Akt, protein kinase C, and YAP. This knowledge has led to the rapid expansion of clinical trials that are specific to patients with uveal melanoma and promises future breakthroughs in therapies.

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