Safety and efficacy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage of pancreatic fluid collections with lumen-apposing covered self-expanding metal stents

Raj J Shah, Janak N Shah, Irving Waxman, Thomas E Kowalski, Andres Sanchez-Yague, Jose Nieto, Brian C Brauer, Monica Gaidhane, Michel Kahaleh
Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2015, 13 (4): 747-52

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Plastic stents, placed via endoscopy to drain pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs), require repeat access. Covered metal stents are larger in diameter and can be inserted in a single step, but can migrate. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of a lumen-apposing, covered, self-expanding metal stent (LACSEMS) for PFC drainage.

METHODS: We performed a prospective study of the outcomes of stent placement in 33 patients (18 men; age, 53 ± 14 y; 28 with chronic pancreatitis) with symptomatic pancreatic pseudocysts and walled-off necrosis (≥ 6 cm with ≥ 70% fluid content). Subjects were enrolled at 7 tertiary care centers (6 in the United States and 1 in Europe) from October 2011 through August 2013. Cystenterostomies were created based on endoscopist preference. Safety outcomes included infection, bleeding, perforation, tissue injury, and stent migration. Efficacy end points included LACSEMS placement, patency, and removal, as well as 50% or more reduction in PFCs.

RESULTS: The mean size of the patients' PFCs was 9 ± 3.3 cm. LACSEMSs were placed successfully via endoscopic ultrasound guidance in 30 patients (91%); the remaining 3 patients received 2 double-pigtail stents. One subject could not be evaluated because of a pseudoaneurysm. In the patients receiving LACSEMS, PFCs resolved in 27 of 29 (93%). Overall, PFCs resolved in 30 of 33 patients (91%). Endoscopic debridement through the LACSEMS was conducted in 11 subjects. Complications (15%) included abdominal pain (n = 3), spontaneous stent migration, back pain (n = 1), access-site infection, and stent dislodgement (n = 1).

CONCLUSIONS: LACSEMS were placed successfully in 91% of subjects with PFCs. Overall, 93% had PFC resolution. Advantages of LACSEMSs over other stents include single-step deployment and the ability to perform endoscopic debridement with minimal stent migration. NCT01419769.

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