Predictors of Frontal Plane Knee Moments During Side-Step Cutting to 45 and 110 Degrees in Men and Women: Implications for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

Susan M Sigward, Guilherme M Cesar, Kathryn L Havens
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine 2015, 25 (6): 529-34

OBJECTIVE: To compare frontal plane knee moments, and kinematics and kinetics associated with knee valgus moments between cutting to 45 and 110 degrees, and to determine the predictive value of kinematics and ground reaction forces (GRFs) on knee valgus moments when cutting to these angles. Also, to determine whether sex differences exist in kinematics and kinetics when cutting to 45 and 110 degrees.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.

SETTING: Laboratory setting.

PARTICIPANTS: Forty-five (20 females) healthy young adult soccer athletes aged 16 to 23 years.

ASSESSMENT OF RISK FACTORS: Kinematic and kinetic variables were compared between randomly cued side-step cutting maneuvers to 45 and 110 degrees. Predictors of knee valgus moment were determined for each task.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Kinematic variables: knee valgus angle, hip abduction, and internal rotation angles. Kinetic variables: vertical, posterior, and lateral GRFs, and knee valgus moment.

RESULTS: Knee valgus moments were greater when cutting to 110 degrees compared with 45 degrees, and females exhibited greater moments than males. Vertical and lateral GRFs, hip internal rotation angle, and knee valgus angle explained 63% of the variance in knee valgus moment during cutting to 45 degrees. During cutting to 110 degrees, posterior GRF, hip internal rotation angle, and knee valgus angle explained 41% of the variance in knee valgus moment.

CONCLUSIONS: Cutting tasks with larger redirection demands result in greater knee valgus moments. Similar factors, including shear GRFs, hip internal rotation, and knee valgus position contribute to knee valgus loading during cuts performed to smaller (45 degrees) and larger (110 degrees) angles.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Reducing vertical and shear GRFs during cutting maneuvers may reduce knee valgus moments and thereby potentially reduce risk for anterior cruciate ligament injury.

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