Monitoring of cerebral oxygen saturation during resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a feasibility study in a physician staffed emergency medical system

Jens-Christian Schewe, Marcus O Thudium, Jochen Kappler, Folkert Steinhagen, Lars Eichhorn, Felix Erdfelder, Ulrich Heister, Richard Ellerkmann
Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2014, 22: 58

BACKGROUND: Despite recent advances in resuscitation algorithms, neurological injury after cardiac arrest due to cerebral ischemia and reperfusion is one of the reasons for poor neurological outcome. There is currently no adequate means of measuring cerebral perfusion during cardiac arrest. It was the aim of this study to investigate the feasibility of measuring near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a potential surrogate parameter for cerebral perfusion in patients with out-of-hospital resuscitations in a physician-staffed emergency medical service.

METHODS: An emergency physician responding to out-of-hospital emergencies was equipped with a NONIN cerebral oximetry device. Cerebral oximetry values (rSO2) were continuously recorded during resuscitation and transport. Feasibility was defined as >80% of total achieved recording time in relation to intended recording time.

RESULTS: 10 patients were prospectively enrolled. In 89.8% of total recording time, rSO2 values could be recorded (213 minutes and 20 seconds), thus meeting feasibility criteria. 3 patients experienced return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). rSO2 during manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was lower in patients who did not experience ROSC compared to the 3 patients with ROSC (31.6%, ± 7.4 versus 37.2% ± 17.0). ROSC was associated with an increase in rSO2. Decrease of rSO2 indicated occurrence of re-arrest in 2 patients. In 2 patients a mechanical chest compression device was used. rSO2 values during mechanical compression were increased by 12.7% and 19.1% compared to manual compression.

CONCLUSIONS: NIRS monitoring is feasible during resuscitation of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and can be a useful tool during resuscitation, leading to an earlier detection of ROSC and re-arrest. Higher initial rSO2 values during CPR seem to be associated with the occurrence of ROSC. The use of mechanical chest compression devices might result in higher rSO2. These findings need to be confirmed by larger studies.

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