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Evolution of a novel pathway leading to dolutegravir resistance in a patient harbouring N155H and multiclass drug resistance

Isabelle Hardy, Bluma Brenner, Peter Quashie, Réjean Thomas, Christos Petropoulos, Wei Huang, Daniela Moisi, Mark A Wainberg, Michel Roger
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2015, 70 (2): 405-11
25281399

OBJECTIVES: Dolutegravir has been recently approved for treatment-naive and -experienced HIV-infected subjects, including integrase inhibitor (INI)-experienced patients. Dolutegravir is a second-generation INI that can overcome many prior raltegravir and elvitegravir failures. Here, we report the evolution of resistance to dolutegravir in a highly treatment-experienced patient harbouring the major N155H mutation consequent to raltegravir treatment failure.

METHODS: Genotypic and phenotypic analyses were done on longitudinal samples to determine viral resistance to INIs. Integrase amino acid sequence interactions with raltegravir and dolutegravir were assessed by molecular modelling and docking simulations.

RESULTS: Five mutations (A49P, L68FL, T97A, E138K and L234V) were implicated in emergent dolutegravir resistance, with a concomitant severe compromise in viral replicative capacity. Molecular modelling and docking simulations revealed that dolutegravir binding to integrase was affected by these acquired dolutegravir mutations.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings identify a novel mutational pathway involving integrase mutations A49P and L234V, leading to dolutegravir resistance in a patient with the N155H raltegravir mutation.

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