[State of the art treatment of progressive or refractory multiple myeloma]

I G H Schmidt-Wolf, C Straka, C Scheid, H Einsele, H Goldschmidt, M Engelhardt
Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 2014, 139 (41): 2091-5

UNLABELLED: Multiple myeloma (MM) is with an incidence of 4-6/100 000 inhabitants a fairly frequent malignancy of B cells. The incidence increases markedly with age. In this review changes in the treatment of relapsed / refractory myeloma during the last decade have been analysed. The present standard of care in the progressive or refractory myeloma was elaborated by the working group "Refractory Multiple Myeloma" using an extensive literature search for studies published between 2003 and 2013. Outside of clinical trials, high-dose therapy with stem cell transplantation is recommended in fit patients up to 75 years without significant comorbidities. Ongoing studies address the question about the least toxic and the most effective treatment. Therefore, inclusion of patients in therapeutic trials and use of novel agent combinations is highly recommended, e.g. with 3(rd) generation-IMIDs (pomalidomide), new proteasome inhibitors, such as carfilzomib, ixazomib or oprozomib, antibodies, such as elotuzumab, daratumumab or SAR650984, siltuximab, tabalumab, denosumab, romosozumab, BTK-, HSP-inhibitors and other innovative phase I/II agents.

CONCLUSION: Based on new insights in the pathogenesis of the disease, treatment options for MM have changed significantly in recent years. There is a significantly larger treatment diversity, i.e. more MM-active agents and combinations are available today. Even with relapsed MM, patients with the disease often live longer and have fewer complications.

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