JOURNAL ARTICLE

Spectrum of acute kidney injury in critically ill patients: A single center study from South India

M Eswarappa, M S Gireesh, V Ravi, D Kumar, G Dev
Indian Journal of Nephrology 2014, 24 (5): 280-5
25249716
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in intensive care unit (ICU) and carries a high mortality rate. Reliable and comparable data about the clinical spectrum of AKI is necessary for optimizing management. The study was conducted to describe epidemiology, etiology, clinical characteristics and outcome of AKI in critically ill patients without pre-existing renal disease, diagnosed using RIFLE criteria. We retrospectively analyzed data of 500 adult patients admitted to ICU with AKI or who developed AKI in ICU. Patients with pre-existing renal disease, renal transplant recipients were excluded. AKI was predominantly encountered in older males. Diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease were the most commonly prevalent comorbidities. Sepsis was the most common cause of AKI, accounting for 38.6% of patients. 24.4% belonged to risk class, 37.0% to injury class, 35.0% to failure class, 3% to loss and 0.6% to ESRD class of the RIFLE criteria. Renal replacement therapy (RRT) was required in 37.2% (n = 186) of patients. About 60% recovered complete renal function. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was a sequel in 2.4% (n = 12) of patients. Average duration of ICU stay was 5.6 days. Crude mortality rate was 37.6% (n = 188). In critically ill patients without pre-existing renal disease, elderly age, male sex, type 2 diabetes along with a primary diagnosis of sepsis were most commonly associated with AKI. Majority of the patients' recovered complete renal function.

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