[Clinical characteristics of 192 adult hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis]

Wenqiu Huang, Yini Wang, Jingshi Wang, Jia Zhang, Lin Wu, Shuo Li, Ran Tang, Xiangzong Zeng, Jianhang Chen, Ruijun Pei, Zhao Wang
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi 2014, 35 (9): 796-801

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical manifestations, laboratory data, therapy, and prognosis in patients with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH).

METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out in 192 adult patients with HLH between 2003 and 2013.

RESULTS: Of the 192 cases, 70 cases were secondary to cancer and 64 cases secondary to infection. According to HLH-2004 criteria, the coincidence rate of indices were: fever (98.96%), high level of serum ferritin (94.27%), increased level of soluble interleukin- 2 receptor(sCD25) (94.79%), decreased or absent activity of NK cells (94.27%), cytopenias (80.73%), splenomegaly (80.21%), emophagocytosis in bone marrow, spleen or lymph nodes (74.48%), hypofibrinogenemia (50.52%), hypertriglyceridemia (37.50%). In addition, 94.27% of patients were presented with liver dysfunction, 96.35% with infections, and 75.52% with coagulopathy. Incidences of central nervous system symptoms and rash were 19.27% and 20.31%, respectively. Among cancer, infection and rheumatic group, there were statistically differences on white blood cells (WBC), platelet (PLT), sCD25, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin and globulin(GLO) (P<0.05). The differences of WBC, PLT, albumin (ALB), GLO, brain natriuretic peptide, creatinine, urea nitrogen between survival group and death group had statistical significance.

CONCLUSION: The secondary HLH occurs from various underlined diseases. Cancer, especially T- cell lymphoma, is the main cause, Secondly, it is EB virus infection. The diagnostic sensitive indicators are Persistent fever, higher level of serum ferritin, low or absent NK-cell activity, and increased sCD25 were the most valuable parameters for diagnosis. Cytopenias were not common in early phase of HLH secondary to rheumatic diseases. WBC, PLT, ALB, GLO could be used as the preliminary parameters for diagnosis. Cardiac insufficiency, renal insufficiency and coagulation dysfunction play important roles in prognosis.

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