Differential association of frailty with cognitive decline and sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults

Shu Nishiguchi, Minoru Yamada, Naoto Fukutani, Daiki Adachi, Yuto Tashiro, Takayuki Hotta, Saori Morino, Hidehiko Shirooka, Yuma Nozaki, Hinako Hirata, Moe Yamaguchi, Hidenori Arai, Tadao Tsuboyama, Tomoki Aoyama
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 2015, 16 (2): 120-4

OBJECTIVES: Frailty in older adults is a serious problem because of various adverse health outcomes in many countries with aging populations, such as Japan. The purpose of this study was to determine whether frailty and pre-frailty are associated with cognitive decline and sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults.

DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study.


PARTICIPANTS: The participants were 273 Japanese community-dwelling older women aged 65 years and older.

MEASUREMENTS: We used the frailty criteria developed by the Cardiovascular Health Study to define physical frailty. We divided the cohort into nonfrail, prefrail, and frail according to frailty scores. Cognitive decline and memory decline were defined by using the Mini-Mental State Examination and Scenery Picture Memory Test, respectively. Sarcopenia was defined according to the diagnostic algorithm recommended by the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia.

RESULTS: In the multivariate logistic regression analysis by using non-frail participants as the reference, pre-frail elderly individuals were significantly more likely to have sarcopenia than non-frail elderly individuals [odds ratio (OR): 2.77, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05-9.26], but not cognitive decline or memory decline. Frail elderly individuals were significantly more likely to have cognitive decline (OR: 5.76, 95% CI: 1.20-27.6), memory decline (OR: 5.53, 95% CI: 1.64-18.7) and sarcopenia (OR: 19.1, 95% CI: 3.73-98.0) than non-frail elderly individuals.

CONCLUSIONS: Sarcopenia was associated with pre-frailty and frailty, whereas cognitive decline was associated only with frailty.

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