Genome-wide identification and analysis of the growth-regulating factor family in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis)

Fengde Wang, Nianwei Qiu, Qian Ding, Jingjuan Li, Yihui Zhang, Huayin Li, Jianwei Gao
BMC Genomics 2014, 15: 807

BACKGROUND: Growth regulating factors (GRFs) have been shown to play important roles in plant growth and development. GRF genes represent a large multigene family in plants. Recently, genome-wide structural and evolutionary analyses of the GRF gene families in Arabidopsis, rice, and maize have been reported. Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) is one of the most important vegetables for agricultural production, and a full genome assembly for this plant has recently been released. However, to our knowledge, the GRF gene family from Chinese cabbage has not been characterized in detail.

RESULTS: In this study, genome-wide analysis was carried out to identify all the GRF genes in Chinese cabbage. Based on the complete Chinese cabbage genome sequence, 17 nonredundant GRF genes, named BrGRFs, were identified and classified into six groups. Phylogenetic analysis of the translated GRF protein sequences from Chinese cabbage, Arabidopsis, and rice indicated that the Chinese cabbage GRF proteins were more closely related to the GRF proteins of Arabidopsis than to those of rice. Expression profile analysis showed that the BrGRF genes had uneven transcript levels in different organs or tissues, and the transcription of most BrGRF genes was induced by gibberellic acid (GA3) treatment. Additionally, over-expression of BrGRF8 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants increased the sizes of the leaves and other organs by regulation of cell proliferation.

CONCLUSIONS: The data obtained from this investigation will contribute to a better understanding of the characteristics of the GRF gene family in Chinese cabbage, and provide a basis for further studies to investigate GRF protein function during development as well as for Chinese cabbage-breeding programs to improve yield and/or head size.

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