Cerebrospinal fluid oxidative stress marker levels and cytokine concentrations in a neonate with incontinentia pigmenti

Natsuki Ohkawa, Akihisa Okumura, Rie Miyata, Naoyuki Tanuma, Masaharu Hayashi, Hiroaki Sato, Toshiaki Shimizu
Pediatric Neurology 2014, 51 (5): 737-40

BACKGROUND: Some children with incontinentia pigmenti exhibit encephalopathic features with severe seizures and disturbed consciousness, from the neonatal through the early infantile period. However, the pathological mechanism of brain lesion development is not fully understood.

METHODS: We measured the cerebrospinal fluid levels of cytokines and oxidative stress markers (8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine and the hexanoyl-lysine adduct) in a young girl with incontinentia pigmenti complicated by an encephalopathic event that occurred on her first day of life. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed widespread reduction of water diffusion in the basal ganglia, the periventricular and subcortical white matter, and the corpus callosum.

RESULTS: Oxidative stress markers were elevated at 4 days of age but decreased mildly by 25 days of age. Elevated levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 were observed at both 4 and 25 days of age, although tumor necrosis factor-α levels were below the limit of detection. No other cytokine levels were elevated, except for those of interleukin-10 at 25 days of age.

CONCLUSIONS: Tumor necrosis factor-α expression and oxidative stress are involved in the pathogenesis of brain lesions in children with incontinentia pigmenti, and elevated cerebrospinal fluid cytokine levels may not be apparent during encephalopathic events.

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