JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

The relationship between exercise,nutrition and type 2 diabetes

Erin J Stephenson, William Smiles, John A Hawley
Medicine and Sport Science 2014, 60: 1-10
25226796
Type 2 diabetes mellitus and its precursor, insulin resistance, are metabolic disease states characterized by impaired regulation in the delivery, transport, and/or storage of energy substrates (primarily carbohydrate- and fat-based fuels). A hallmark feature of patients with type 2 diabetes is prolonged periods of hyperglycemia due to a decreased responsiveness of metabolically active peripheral tissues to the actions of insulin (i.e., metabolic inflexibility). Accordingly, efforts to modify skeletal muscle substrate handling in type 2 diabetes patients so that the capacity for fat oxidation and metabolic flexibility is improved should be a primary goal for the treatment of these disorders. Two potent interventions for improving whole-body glucose homeostasis are exercise and diet. A single bout of either resistance or endurance exercise reduces the prevalence and duration of hyperglycemic excursions in patients with type 2 diabetes, an effect lasting well into the next day. With regard to diet, the carbohydrate content of a meal and the glycemic index (GI) of the carbohydrate consumed are both major determinants of the postprandial glycemic response. Diets containing high-GI carbohydrates have been shown to be independent risk factors for type 2 diabetes onset, while in obese insulin-resistant individuals, low-GI diets are effective for inducing both weight loss and improving insulin action and glucose tolerance. The implementation of physical activity and dietary modifications are effective low-cost treatment options for controlling hyperglycemic episodes in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
25226796
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"

We want to hear from doctors like you!

Take a second to answer a survey question.