Activation of AMPK attenuates lipopolysaccharide-impaired integrity and function of blood-brain barrier in human brain microvascular endothelial cells

Zhihong Zhao, Jue Hu, Xiaoping Gao, Hui Liang, Zhan Liu
Experimental and Molecular Pathology 2014, 97 (3): 386-92
The blood-brain barrier (BBB), formed by specialized brain endothelial cells that are interconnected by tight junctions, strictly regulates paracellular permeability to maintain an optimal extracellular environment for brain homeostasis. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is known to alter the integrity of the BBB in sepsis, although the underlying mechanism remains unknown. The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the disruption of the BBB in LPS-induced sepsis and to determine whether the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) prevents LPS-induced BBB dysfunction. The exposure of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) to LPS (1 μg/ml) for 4 to 24h a week dramatically increased the permeability of the BBB in parallel with the lowered expression levels of occludin and claudin-5, which are essential to maintain tight junctions in HBMECs. In addition, LPS significantly increased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) productions. All effects induced by LPS in HBVMCs were reversed by adenoviral overexpression of superoxide dismutase, inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase by apocynin or gain-function of AMPK by adenoviral overexpression of constitutively active mutant (AMPK-CA) or by 5-amino-4-imidazole carboxamide riboside (AICAR). Finally, the upregulation of AMPK by either AMPK-CA or AICAR abolished the levels of LPS-enhanced NAD(P)H oxidase subunit protein expressions. We conclude that AMPK activation improves the integrity of the BBB disrupted by LPS through suppressing the induction of NAD(P)H oxidase-derived ROS in HBMECs.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Available on the App Store

Available on the Play Store
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"