Dyslipidemia patterns among Hispanics/Latinos of diverse background in the United States

Carlos J Rodriguez, Martha L Daviglus, Katrina Swett, Hector M González, Linda C Gallo, Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, Aida L Giachello, Yanping Teng, Neil Schneiderman, Gregory A Talavera, Robert C Kaplan
American Journal of Medicine 2014, 127 (12): 1186-94.e1

BACKGROUND: The prevalence and determinants of dyslipidemia patterns among Hispanics/Latinos are not well known.

METHODS: Lipid and lipoprotein data were used from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos—a population-based cohort of 16,415 US Hispanic/Latinos ages 18-74 years. National Cholesterol Education Program cutoffs were employed. Differences in demographics, lifestyle factors, and biological and acculturation characteristics were compared among those with and without dyslipidemia.

RESULTS: Mean age was 41.1 years, and 47.9% were male. The overall prevalence of any dyslipidemia was 65.0%. The prevalence of elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 36.0%, and highest among Cubans (44.5%; P < .001). Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was present in 41.4% and did not significantly differ across Hispanic background groups (P = .09). High triglycerides were seen in 14.8% of Hispanics/Latinos, most commonly among Central Americans (18.3%; P < .001). Elevated non-HDL-C was seen in 34.7%, with the highest prevalence among Cubans (43.3%; P < .001). Dominicans consistently had a lower prevalence of most types of dyslipidemia. In multivariate analyses, the presence of any dyslipidemia was associated with increasing age, body mass index, and low physical activity. Older age, female sex, diabetes, low physical activity, and alcohol use were associated with specific dyslipidemia types. Spanish-language preference and lower educational status were associated with higher dyslipidemia prevalence.

CONCLUSION: Dyslipidemia is highly prevalent among US Hispanics/Latinos; Cubans seem particularly at risk. Determinants of dyslipidemia varied across Hispanic backgrounds, with socioeconomic status and acculturation having a significant effect on dyslipidemia prevalence. This information can help guide public health measures to prevent disparities among the US Hispanic/Latino population.

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