[The secretory function of skeletal muscles and its role in energy metabolism and utilization]

Tamás Halmos, Ilona Suba
Orvosi Hetilap 2014 September 14, 155 (37): 1469-77
It is well-known for a long-time, that intensive exercise is favourable for many metabolic parameters. Up-till now the exact mechanism has not been clarified. Recently it has turned out, that the muscular system is an extended endocrine organ, which, during contraction, secretes many hundred peptides, so called adipomyokines into the blood stream. Many of them improve glucose-utilization of the muscular system, and insulin-sensitivity, via endocrine, paracrine, or autocrine pathways. Worldwide intensive research takes place to clear up the exact pathomechanism of these processes. It came to light: 1. The newly discovered adipomyokine, irisin induces "browning" of beige precursor fat-cells, which are present in white adipose tissue. The developed beige adipose tissue by this way disposes with the advantegous properties of the brown adipose tissue. Taking together these facts, irisin might be a therapeutic choice in treating certain diseases, caused by inactive life-style. 2. Therapeutic application of brown adipose tissue in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes seems to be successful. This mechanism is based on removal of unnecessary calories via thermogenesis. 3. The role of myostatin, which is also produced by muscle contraction, is contradictory. It is not clear, why does the muscle system produce damaging product for the metabolism. On the other hand, inhibition of myostatin might be a therapeutic option. It is still questionable, whether the other hundreds of myokines could possess practicable roles on glucose, lipid, insulin secretion/effects. At present one can establish, that regular exercise is essential for the everyday practise, in order to optimise quality of life.

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