COMPARATIVE STUDY
JOURNAL ARTICLE

Divergent antiviral roles of amphibian (Xenopus laevis) macrophages elicited by colony-stimulating factor-1 and interleukin-34

Leon Grayfer, Jacques Robert
Journal of Leukocyte Biology 2014, 96 (6): 1143-53
25190077
Macrophages are integral to amphibian immunity against RVs, as well as to the infection strategies of these pathogens. Although CSF-1 was considered to be the principal mediator of macrophage development, the IL-34 cytokine, which shares no sequence identity with CSF-1, is now believed to contribute to vertebrate monopoiesis. However, the respective roles of CSF-1- and IL-34-derived macrophages are still poorly understood. To delineate the contribution of these macrophage populations to amphibian immunity against the RV FV3, we identified the Xenopus laevis IL-34 and transcriptionally and functionally compared this cytokine with the previously identified X. laevis CSF-1. The X. laevis CSF-1 and IL-34 displayed strikingly nonoverlapping developmental and tissue-specific gene-expression patterns. Furthermore, only CSF-1 but not IL-34 was up-regulated in the kidneys of FV3-challenged tadpoles. Intriguingly, recombinant forms of these cytokines (rXlCSF-1, rXlIL-34) elicited morphologically distinct tadpole macrophages, and whereas rXlCSF-1 pretreatment decreased the survival of FV3-infected tadpoles, rXlIL-34 administration significantly prolonged FV3-challenged animal survival. Compared with rXlIL-34-elicited macrophages, macrophages derived by rXlCSF-1 were more phagocytic but also significantly more susceptible to in vitro FV3 infections. By contrast, rXlIL-34-derived macrophages exhibited significantly greater in vitro antiranaviral activity and displayed substantially more robust gene expression of the NADPH oxidase components (p67(phox), gp91(phox)) and type I IFN. Moreover, FV3-challenged, rXlIL-34-derived macrophages exhibited several orders of magnitude greater up-regulation of the type I IFN gene expression. This marks the first report of the disparate roles of CSF-1 and IL-34 in vertebrate antiviral immunity.

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