The essential role of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 in simvastatin-induced activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and angiogenesis

K-H Su, S-J Lin, J Wei, K-I Lee, J-F Zhao, S-K Shyue, T-S Lee
Acta Physiologica 2014, 212 (3): 191-204

AIMS: We investigated the role of transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor type 1 (TRPV1) in simvastatin-mediated activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and angiogenesis.

METHODS: Fluo-8 NW assay was for Ca(2+) detection; Griess's assay was for NO bioavailability; Western blotting and immunoprecipitation were for protein phosphorylation and interaction; tube formation and Matrigel plug assay were for angiogenesis.

RESULTS: In endothelial cells (ECs), treatment with simvastatin time-dependently increased intracellular level of Ca(2+). Pharmacological inhibition or genetic disruption of TRPV1 abrogated simvastatin-mediated elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) in ECs or TRPV1-transfected HEK293 cells. Loss of TRPV1 function abolished simvastatin-induced NO production and phosphorylation of eNOS and calmodulin protein kinase II (CaMKII) in ECs and in aortas of mice. Inhibition of TRPV1 activation prevented the simvastatin-elicited increase in the formation of TRPV1-Akt-CaMKII-AMPK-eNOS complex. In mice, Matrigel plug assay showed that simvastatin-evoked angiogenesis was abolished by TRPV1 antagonist and genetic ablation of TRPV1. Additionally, our results demonstrated that TRP ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is the downstream effector in the simvastatin-activated TRPV1-Ca(2+) signalling and in the consequent NO production and angiogenesis as evidence by that re-expression of TRPA1 further augmented simvastatin-elicited Ca(2+) influx in TRPV1-expressed HEK293 cells and ablation of TRPA1 function profoundly inhibited the simvastatin-induced increase in the phosphorylation of eNOS and CaMKII, formation of TRPV1-Akt-CaMKII-AMPK-eNOS complex, NO bioavailability, tube formation and angiogenesis in ECs or mice.

CONCLUSION: Simvastatin-induced Ca(2+) influx may through the activation of TRPV1-TRPA1 signalling, which leads to phosphorylation of CaMKII, increases in the formation of TRPV1-CaMKII-AMPK-eNOS complex, eNOS activation, NO production and, ultimately, angiogenesis in ECs.

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