Cross-cultural comparison of seven morningness and sleep-wake measures from Germany, India and Slovakia

Christoph Randler, Pavol Prokop, Subhashis Sahu, Prasun Haldar
International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie 2015, 50 (4): 279-87
Morningness-eveningness or circadian typology can be viewed as an interesting aspect of individual differences. Morningness-eveningness is a preference for a given time of day for physical or mental performance, but also reflects aspects of affect. Here, we used seven different measures to assess differences in morningness-eveningness between Germany, Slovakia and India. The hypothesis was that Indians should be earliest chronotypes, followed by Slovakia and then Germany, because of higher temperatures in India, and the fact that Slovakia is located farther east compared to Germany. We applied the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM), the Circadian Energy Scale (CIRENS), the CAEN Chronotype Questionnaire (CCQ), and habitual sleep-wake variables to calculate sleep duration, midpoint of sleep and social jetlag. Sample sizes were N = 300 (Germany), N = 482 (Slovakia) and N = 409 (India). Country had the strongest influence on morningness-eveningness. Germans were latest chronotypes and differed in all seven measures from Indians but differed from Slovakians only in the energy level at the evening and midpoint of sleep. Slovakians and Indians differed in all measures but the energy level (CIRENS). Women scored higher on the CSM, lower on CIRENS, lower on the morningness-eveningness (ME) scale, but higher on distinctness (DI) scale. Women slept longer and had an earlier midpoint of sleep.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"