Intraoperative radiation therapy: a critical analysis of the ELIOT and TARGIT trials. Part 1—ELIOT

Melvin J Silverstein, Gerd Fastner, Sergio Maluta, Roland Reitsamer, Donald A Goer, Frank Vicini, David Wazer
Annals of Surgical Oncology 2014, 21 (12): 3787-92

INTRODUCTION: Two randomized intraoperative radiation therapy trials for early-stage breast cancer were recently published. The ELIOT Trial used electrons (IOERT), and the TARGIT-A Trial Update used 50-kV X-rays (IORT). These studies were compared for similarities and differences. The results were analyzed and used to determine which patients might be suitable for single-dose treatment.

METHOD: The primary sources of data were the ELIOT Trial and TARGIT-A Trial, as well as a comprehensive analysis of the peer-reviewed literature of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using 50-kV X-rays or electrons. Studies published or presented prior to March 2014 were analyzed for efficacy, patient restrictions, complications, and outcome.

RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 5.8 years, the 5-year recurrence rates for ELIOT versus external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) patients were 4.4 % and 0.4 %, respectively, p = .0001. A low-risk ELIOT group was identified with a 5-year recurrence rate of 1.5 %. With a median follow-up of 29 months, the 5-year recurrence rates for the TARGIT-A versus EBRT patients were 3.3 % and 1.3 %, respectively, p = .042.

CONCLUSION: With 5.8 years of median follow-up, IOERT appears to have a subset of low-risk women for whom IOERT is acceptable. With 29 months of median follow-up the results of IORT with 50-kV devices are promising, but longer follow-up data are required. At the current time, single-fraction IOERT or IORT patients should be treated under strict institutional protocols.

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