Predictive performance of gentamicin dosing nomograms

Jieon Lee, Seonghae Yoon, Donghoon Shin, HyeKyung Han, Hyungmi An, Jongtae Lee, Kyoung Soo Lim, Kyung-Sang Yu, Howard Lee
Drug Design, Development and Therapy 2014, 8: 1097-106

BACKGROUND: Several nomograms have been proposed to facilitate the determination of initial gentamicin dosing regimens in clinical settings. This study aimed to assess the predictive performance of these nomograms in Korean patients.

METHODS: Gentamicin concentrations were determined in 84 patients with infective endocarditis (IE) and in 95 patients with other infections. All patients underwent therapeutic drug monitoring in Seoul National University Hospital from 2006 to 2012. Individual pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using a Bayesian method, which predicted steady state peak and trough serum concentrations. Six nomograms were evaluated in patients with "other" infections: the Thomson guidelines, Hull-Sarubbi table, and Rule of Eights, for multiple daily dosing; and the Hartford nomogram, Barnes-Jewish Hospital nomogram, and Sanford Guide, for extended-interval dosing. In IE patients, synergistic combination dosing nomograms, based on the American Heart Association dosing interval guidelines, were evaluated.

RESULTS: Gentamicin dosing nomograms performed poorly in attaining the target peak serum concentrations. Multiple-daily dosing nomograms predicted peak serum gentamicin concentrations better than did the extended-interval dosing nomograms (31.9%-72.3% vs 4.3%-45.7%, respectively). Similarly, in patients with IE, the once-daily dosing nomogram resulted in a significantly lower percentage of patients achieving target peak gentamicin concentrations than that associated with the thrice-daily dosing nomogram (P=0.0015). All of the multiple-daily dosing, extended-interval dosing, and synergistic combination dosing nomograms predicted the nontoxic target trough concentrations in >80% of patients.

CONCLUSION: Gentamicin dosing nomograms performed poorly in achieving the target peak serum concentrations. New gentamicin nomograms may be required in patients with IE, particularly for once-daily dosing. Therapeutic drug monitoring is highly recommended for gentamicin to ensure that the target concentrations are achieved.

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