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Thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease).

Thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO, Buerger's disease) is an inflammatory vascular disease affecting small and medium sized arteries and veins. It is characterized by segmental thrombotic occlusions by highly mononuclear cellular thrombi. Its occurrence and re-occurrence is closely related to tobacco use. Immunohistological examinations and the detections of various autoantibodies led to the new paradigm of an immunopathogenesis of TAO. Clinically it is characterized by distal ischemia syndromes in young people and high amputation rates. This article summarizes the disease characteristics, clinical features, and diagnostic and therapeutic approaches and focuses on new therapeutic options, i.e. stem cell derived therapies, immunoadsorption, and the endothelin-receptor-blocking agent bosentan.

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