Journal Article
Observational Study
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Cytomegalovirus anterior uveitis: long-term follow-up of immunocompetent patients.

BACKGROUND: We aimed to report on the clinical findings and long-term prognosis of patients with cytomegalovirus (CMV) anterior uveitis.

METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study on 15 immunocompetent patients with CMV anterior uveitis and a follow-up longer than 24 months (mean: 62.1 ± 28.5 months).

RESULTS: Uveitis was unilateral and hypertensive in all cases, with acute relapsing having the characteristics of Posner-Schlossman syndrome in nine (60 %) and chronic in nine patients (40 %), three of whom were clinically classified as Fuchs' heterocromic iridocyclitis (20 %). All patients received topical antiviral and corticosteroid therapy, with six patients also receiving systemic therapy with valganciclovir or acyclovir. The mean number of uveitis relapses significantly decreased, before and after anti-CMV therapy, from 0.23 ± 0.17 to 0.03 ± 0.03 (p < 0.001), without significant differences among patients treated with topical therapy alone or combined topical and systemic therapy. Cataracts developed in nine out of 13 patients (69.2 %). A chronic raise in intraocular pressure (IOP) was found in 13 patients (86.6 %), with nine requiring surgery (60 %). At the end of the follow-up, all patients had a quiescent uveitis, with ten of them requiring topical low dose steroid therapy (66.6 %) and combined with systemic acyclovir in four cases. Eight patients (53.3 %) were on antiglaucomatous therapy. The last mean IOP value was 14.9 ± 3.6 mmHg (range 8-21 mmHg), and visual acuity was 0.89 ± 0.21.

CONCLUSIONS: CMV-associated anterior uveitis has a fairly good long-term visual prognosis. Antiviral therapy can reduce the frequency of relapses, but cataracts and a chronic raise in IOP are frequent complications often requiring a surgical approach.

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