5-year results of a prospective, randomized, single-center study of alemtuzumab compared with rabbit antithymocyte globulin induction in simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplantation

R J Stratta, J Rogers, G Orlando, U Farooq, Y Al-Shraideh, A C Farney
Transplantation Proceedings 2014, 46 (6): 1928-31

INTRODUCTION: The study purpose was to analyze 5-year outcomes in a prospective, randomized trial of alemtuzumab (ALEM) versus rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) induction in simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplantation (SKPT).

PATIENTS AND METHODS: From February 2005 through October 2008, a total of 46 SKPTs (45 portal-enteric drainage) were prospectively randomized to receive either single-dose ALEM (30 mg intraoperatively) or multiple-dose rATG antibody induction (starting intraoperatively, minimum of 3 doses administered) with tacrolimus/mycophenolate and/or steroids.

RESULTS: Of 222 kidney transplant patients enrolled in the study, 46 received SKPTs; 28 (61%) received ALEM and 18 (39%) received rATG induction. Follow-up ranged from 54 to 98 months (mean, 69 months). There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in 5-year patient (82% ALEM vs 89% rATG), kidney graft (79% ALEM vs 72% rATG), or pancreas graft (64% ALEM vs 56% rATG) survival rates. Death-censored kidney (90% ALEM vs 75% rATG) and pancreas (71% ALEM vs 56% rATG) graft survival rates were likewise comparable (both, P = NS). Acute rejection (21% ALEM vs 44% rATG; P = .11) and major infection (39% ALEM vs 67% rATG; P = .13) rates were slightly lower in the ALEM group; cytomegalovirus infections were significantly lower (0% ALEM vs 17% rATG; P = .05). The incidence of late acute rejection was low in both groups. There were no differences in early pancreas thromboses (3.6% ALEM vs 11% rATG), postoperative bleeding (11% ALEM vs 0% rATG), other surgical complications, or readmissions between groups. In patients with functioning grafts, 5-year mean serum creatinine (1.4 ALEM vs 1.6 mg/dL rATG), calculated abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease glomerular filtration rate (55 ALEM vs 52 mL/min/1.73 m(2) rATG), glycosylated hemoglobin (both 5.4%), and C-peptide (2.2 ALEM vs 2.3 ng/mL rATG) levels were similar.

CONCLUSIONS: Single-dose ALEM and multiple dose rATG induction provided similar medium-term patient, kidney, and pancreas graft function and survival rates. ALEM induction may be associated with less acute rejection and major infection over the long term.

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