The epidemiology, risk factors, and impact on hospital mortality of status epilepticus after subdural hematoma in the United States

Ali Seifi, Ali Akbar Asadi-Pooya, Kevin Carr, Mitchell Maltenfort, Mehrdad Emami, Rodney Bell, Michael Moussouttas, Moussa Yazbeck, Fred Rincon
SpringerPlus 2014, 3: 332

INTRODUCTION: Subdural hematoma (SDH) is a well described risk factor in the development of Status Epilepticus (SE), however the epidemiology of SE after SDH is unknown. In this study, we sought to determine the epidemiology of SE, the prevalence of risk factors, and impact on hospital mortality using a large administrative dataset.

METHODS: Data was derived from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 1988 through 2011. We queried the NIS database for patients older than 18 years, with a diagnosis of SDH and SE. Diagnoses were defined by ICD 9 CM codes 432.1, 852.2, 852.3 and 345.3 for SE. Adjusted incidence rates of admission and prevalence proportions were calculated. Multivariate logistic models were then fitted to assess for the impact of status epilepticus on hospital mortality.

RESULTS: Over the 23-year period, we identified more than 1,583,255 admissions with a diagnosis of SDH. The prevalence of SE in this cohort was 0.5% (7,421 admissions). The population adjusted incidence rate of admissions of SDH increased from 13/100,000 in 1988 to 38/100,000 in 2011. The prevalence of SE in SDH, increased from 0.5% in 1988 to 0.7% in 2011. In hospital mortality of patients with SDH and without SE decreased from 17.9% to 10.3% while in hospital mortality of patients with SDH and SE did not statistically change. Mortality increased over the same period (2.3/100,000 in 1988 to 3.9/100.000 in 2011) and the diagnosis of SE increased mortality in this cohort (OR 2.17, p < 0.0001). The risk of SE remained stable throughout the study period, but was higher among older patients, blacks, and in those with respiratory, metabolic, hematological, and renal system dysfunction.

CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that the incidence of admissions of SDH is increasing in the United States. Despite a decline in the overall SDH related mortality, SE increased the risk of in-hospital death in patients with a primary diagnosis of SDH.

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