Outcomes of ambulatory rehabilitation programmes following botulinum toxin for spasticity in adults with stroke

Marina Demetrios, Alexandra Gorelik, Julie Louie, Caroline Brand, Ian J Baguley, Fary Khan
Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 2014, 46 (8): 730-7

OBJECTIVE: To examine the benefits of high intensity ambulatory rehabilitation programmes over usual care following botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) for post-stroke spasticity in Australian adults.

DESIGN: Prospective single centre, controlled clinical trial.

PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-nine adults, median 61 years old and 2.5 years following stroke.

METHODS: PARTICIPANTS were dichotomised into high intensity ambulatory rehabilitation programmes (≥ 3 × 1-h weekly sessions for approximately 10 weeks) or usual care programmes (≤ 2 × 1-h weekly sessions) following BoNT-A injections for spasticity. A blinded assessor completed outcomes at 0 (baseline), 6, 12 and 24 weeks. Primary endpoints: proportion of participants achieving ≥ 50% of their goals (using Goal Attainment Scaling: GAS) and GAS T-score change at 12 weeks.

SECONDARY OUTCOMES: Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), participant satisfaction, activity/participation measures and caregiver burden.

RESULTS: Both groups showed significant improvement in goal attainment and participant satisfaction up to 24 weeks, with no overall between-group significant differences. There was, however, a statistical trend (p = 0.052) for participants to achieve more upper limb goals in the high intensity therapy group. GAS and satisfaction benefits persisted beyond the duration of spasticity reduction as measured by MAS.

CONCLUSIONS: While patient-centred outcomes following BoNT-A injections for post-stroke spasticity were not influenced by intensity of ambulatory rehabilitation programmes, there was a trend for high intensity therapy to be associated with greater upper limb goal attainment. This suggests that the effects of more intensive therapy may be a modifier of the 'black box' of rehabilitation; however, further research is required to evaluate this effect and determine which elements of therapy programmes optimise post-BoNT-A outcomes.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"