Outcomes with post-dilation following transcatheter aortic valve replacement: the PARTNER I trial (placement of aortic transcatheter valve)

Rebecca T Hahn, Philippe Pibarot, John Webb, Josep Rodes-Cabau, Howard C Herrmann, Mathew Williams, Raj Makkar, Wilson Y Szeto, Michael L Main, Vinod H Thourani, E Murat Tuzcu, Samir Kapadia, Jodi Akin, Thomas McAndrew, Ke Xu, Martin B Leon, Susheel K Kodali
JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions 2014, 7 (7): 781-9

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to characterize the patients receiving post-implantation balloon dilation (PD) following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) and evaluate procedural outcomes in the PARTNER (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valve) I trial.

BACKGROUND: Following TAVR, PD has been used to treat paravalvular regurgitation.

METHODS: The PARTNER I trial cohort A (n = 304) and cohort B (n = 194) patients randomized to TAVR and the nonrandomized continued access TAVR (n = 1,637) patients were included in the analysis. PD was performed at the discretion of the operator. Clinical events and echocardiographic variables were collected prospectively out to 1 year.

RESULTS: The overall incidence of PD was 12.4%. PD patients had significantly less prosthesis-patient mismatch (p < 0.001) and larger effective orifice areas (p < 0.001) throughout the follow-up period. There were significantly more subacute strokes (occurring <7 days: 4.9% vs. 2.6%; p = 0.04) in PD patients but no difference in late stroke, either at 7 to 30 days (0.0% vs. 0.8%; p = 0.16) or >30 days (1.9 vs. 1.7%; p = 0.75). Although there was no significant increase in early mortality with PD, at 1 year, there was a trend for higher all-cause mortality (p = 0.054) and a significant difference in death or stroke (p = 0.04). When the subgroup of patients with none/trace paravalvular regurgitation were evaluated, there was no significant association of PD with mortality (p = 0.61) and death or stroke (p = 0.96). Multivariable analysis failed to show a relationship between PD and mortality.

CONCLUSIONS: PD is associated with reduced rates of moderate or severe prosthesis-patient mismatch with no evidence for short-term structural deterioration of the balloon-expandable transcatheter valve. Although PD is associated with a greater incidence of early stroke, there is no significant association between PD and stroke beyond 7 days. Multivariable analysis shows no significant association between PD and mortality.

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