Comparative outcomes after unprotected left main stem percutaneous coronary intervention: a national linked cohort study of 5,065 acute and elective cases from the BCIS Registry (British Cardiovascular Intervention Society)

Sami S Almudarra, Chris P Gale, Paul D Baxter, Sarah J Fleming, Richard A Brogan, Peter F Ludman, Mark A de Belder, Nick P Curzen
JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions 2014, 7 (7): 717-30

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to report outcomes from percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to an unprotected left main stem (UPLMS) stenosis according to presenting syndrome, including ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS), and chronic stable angina (CSA).

BACKGROUND: There are no published whole-country data concerning patient outcomes following PCI to UPLMS.

METHODS: This study is a prospective national cohort study using data from the British Cardiovascular Intervention Society (BCIS) registry from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2010.

RESULTS: Of 5,065 patients having PCI to an UPLMS, 784 (15.5%) presented with STEMI, 2,381 (47.0%) with NSTEACS, and 1,900 (37.5%) with CSA. Crude 30-day and 1-year mortality rates were STEMI: 28.3% and 37.6%, NSTEACS: 8.9% and 19.5%, and CSA: 1.4% and 7.0%, respectively. Unadjusted in-hospital major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular event rates were STEMI: 26.6%, NSTEACS: 6.6%, and CSA: 3.3%. Risk of 30-day mortality was much greater for STEMI and NSTEACS patients than CSA (STEMI adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 29.45, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 19.37 to 44.80, NSTEACS aOR: 6.45, 95% CI: 4.27 to 9.76). More than 40% of patients presenting with STEMI had cardiogenic shock, in whom mortality was higher than in STEMI cases without shock (30 days: 52.0% vs. 11.7%, 1 year: 61.1% vs. 20.9%). Radial access, compared with the femoral approach, was associated with a lower risk of 30-day mortality (STEMI aOR: 0.37, 95% CI: 0.21 to 0.62; NSTEACS aOR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.45 to 0.97).

CONCLUSIONS: More than one-half of the patients who received UPLMS PCI were acute where outcomes were much worse than elective cases. Cardiogenic shock is common in STEMI patients, of whom more than one-half die at 30 days. The radial approach was associated with reduced early mortality in acute cases.

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