[Intratympanic corticosteroid perfusion in the therapy of Meniere's disease]

Snezana Sanković-Babić, Rade Kosanović, Zoran Ivanković, Snezana Babac, Milica Tatović
Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo 2014, 142 (5-6): 291-5

INTRODUCTION: Over the last two decades the intratympanic perfusion of corticosteroids has been used as a minimally invasive surgical therapy of Meniere's disease. According to experimental studies the antiinflammatory, immunoprotective, antioxidant and neuroprotective role of the locally perfused corticosteroids was noticed in the inner ear structures. The recovery of action potentials in the cells of the Corti organ was confirmed as well as a decreased expression of aquaporine-1, a glycoprotein responsible for labyrinth hydrops and N and K ions derangement.

OBJECTIVE: The study showed results of intratympanic perfusion therapy with dexamethasone in patients with retractable Meniere's disease who are resistant to conservative treatment.

METHODS: Single doses of 4 mg/ml dexamethasone were given intratympanically in 19 patients with retractable Meniere's disease. Six single successive doses of dexamethasone were administered in the posteroinferior quadrant of the tympanic membrane. Follow-up of the patients was conducted by using a clinical questionnaire a month after completed perfusion series as well as on every third month up to one year.

RESULTS: One month after completed first course of perfusions, in 78% of patients, vertigo problems completely ceased or were markedly reduced. The recovery of hearing function was recorded in 68% and marked tinnitus reduction in 84% of patients. After a year of follow-up, in 63% of patients the reduction of vertigo persisted, while hearing function was satisfactory in 52%. Tinitus reduction was present in 73% of patients.

CONCLUSION: Intratympanic perfusion of dexamethasone in patients with Meniere's disease is a minimally invasive therapeutic method that contributes to the reduction of the intensity of vertigo recurrent attacks, decrease of the intensity of tinnitus and improvement of the average hearing threshold. Patients with chronic diseases and Meniere's disease who are contraindicted for systemic administration of cortocosteroids (hypertension, diabetes, glaucoma, peptic ulcer, etc.) have an additional therapeutic option by dexamethasone intratympanic perfusion.

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