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Radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To better understand the mechanism of radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis and the advantages and disadvantages of available treatment options for bladder hemorrhage as well as preventive measures.

RECENT FINDINGS: There have been several attempts recently to manage hemorrhagic cystitis with hyperbaric oxygen therapy, transurethral coagulation using Greenlight potassium-titanyl-phosphate laser and other different treatment modalities, but we still need more investigation on larger cohort studies.

SUMMARY: Hemorrhagic cystitis is an uncommon urological problem. It is most often caused by radiation therapy and cyclophosphamide, but can be associated with other contributing factors. Technological advances in radiation therapy have resulted in greater treatment efficacy, with significant reduction in side-effects such as hemorrhagic cystitis. Higher dose radiation treatment, however, is more often associated with problematic hemorrhagic cystitis. Treatment of hemorrhagic cystitis is multifactorial and can range from simple bladder irrigation to cystectomy with urinary diversion.

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