Tumor Lysis Syndrome in Solid Tumors: An up to Date Review of the Literature.
Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a potentially deadly complication of tumors or their treatment. This syndrome consists of a constellation of laboratory findings such as hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypocalcemia, known as laboratory TLS. When clinical complications such as seizures, acute renal failure, and cardiac dysrhythmias occur in patients with laboratory TLS, the syndrome is called clinical TLS. TLS is especially common in patients with hematological malignancies with rapid cellular turnover rates such as acute lymphocytic leukemia and Burkitt lymphoma, but is very rare in patients with solid tumors. Nevertheless, there are multiple reports in the literature on the occurrence of TLS in patients with solid tumors. In this review article, we summarize the current data on the occurrence of TLS in patients with solid tumors. We propose an algorithm of risk stratification and prevention of TLS in patients with solid cancers.
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