Endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation for treatment of large bile duct stones does not increase the risk of post-procedure pancreatitis

Jun Suk Park, Tae Nyeun Kim, Kook Hyun Kim
Digestive Diseases and Sciences 2014, 59 (12): 3092-8

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) and endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) are well-known procedures for the treatment of common duct stones. There was no statistically significant difference in post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis rates between ES and EPLBD in most studies. The aims of this study were to evaluate whether EPLBD increases the risk of post-ERCP pancreatitis and to identify the risk factors influencing post-ERCP pancreatitis.

METHODS: A review of 341 patients who underwent ERCP for treatment of common duct stones larger than 1 cm in diameter from January 2006 to December 2011 was conducted retrospectively. Patients were divided into three groups: ES group (n = 207), EPLBD + ES group (n = 99), and EPLBD with previous history of ES group (n = 35).

RESULTS: Of 341 patients, overall incidence of post-ERCP pancreatitis was 2.6% (n = 9). Incidence of post-ERCP pancreatitis was 3.4, 2.0, and 0% in the ES group, EPLBD + ES group, and EPLBD with previous history of ES group, respectively. No significant difference in the incidence of post-ERCP pancreatitis was observed among the three groups (p = 0.47). Endoscopic biliary stenting was the independent risk factor for pancreatitis according to univariate (p = 0.046) and multivariate analyses (p = 0.036, OR 4.211, 95% CI 1.095-16.199). Age, sex, stone size, mechanical lithotripsy, common bile duct diameter, balloon size, and duration of balloon dilation were not significantly related to post-ERCP pancreatitis.

CONCLUSION: EPLBD with antecedent limited ES or previous ES state does not increase the risk of post-ERCP pancreatitis in patients with large bile duct stones. Endoscopic biliary stenting seems to be the independent risk factor of post-ERCP pancreatitis.

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